Community Development Department
Manufacturing Of Earthenware
Dan Kwian Products
1. The Preparation of Bodies
It is rather a rule that in the manufacturing
of earthenware, the special and correct mixure
of the clay is needed.That is the plasticity
of the clay to be mixed must be counted. Here
in Dan Kwian, two type of clay are used the
very plastic clay and the mild plastic clay.The
ratio of 2:1 is applied. In the mixing, dirts
and other crude substances must be removed.
The clay then needs watering to keep it wet
at the moderate ondition then must be kept in
apond-size 1x1 metres wide and 20 centimetres
deep for at least 24 hours.
Before the forming process, the clay body must
be treated i.e wedging stage. Normally through
the wetting process, and machine work.The machine
will help wedge the clay and make it like tube-like
shape, to be ready for the forming process .
In the old days, the mixing of clay, the craftsmen
will cover the clay with buffalo skin or pieces
of wood, then keep steping on the clay ultil
the clay is mixed. After that the clay will
be bornd (either by auger machine or by hands)
in the size of 25 - 30 centimetres long and
8 centimetres wide. At this stage, the clay
is called 'Loh' (the parameter used to mark
the size of product to be made). The 'Loh' must
be kept wet either wrapped by plastic sheets
or in the old days by banana leaves and kept
in the big jars for the 2 days.
| 2. The forming process
The throwing method is applied in the forming
process.The tool know as 'Pamoon' (Potter's Wheel)
is needed at this satge. Craftsman and this helper
must work simultaneously.The craftsman will use
the 'Loh' to produce the shape of the product
as wanted (the coil method) while his helper kicks
the wheel accordingly. Wet clothes are used to
help keep the 'Loh' wet.
3. The Finishing and Decoration
In the old day, only one desing was
applied to decorate the products and it was
called 'Lai Ta Geang'. Craftsmen usually need
pieces of wood sticks as tool for cuting the
desing on the products and it has to be done
at the stage called "leather hard" stage. Today
the decoration is designed according to the
need of the customers or the information given
the following 3 modules are applied:
3.1 the incised design
3.2 the sgraffito or scratched decoration
3.3 the relief design - using slip as attaching
material and the combing method is applied.
4. The Air Drying
After the forming, the shaping and the decorating
process, the products are moved for drying practically
in grass huts that the roof are designed and
built where the end parts are down to the ground
in order to help protect the products from direct
wind and the sun and of course from the rian.The
floor of each hut is normally paved with sand.
The drying period is depended upon the season
then. In the summer, the drying may take 15
- 20 days. In the rainy season, the drying may
take 30 days.
5. The Firing
In the old days, craftsmen, normally prepared
the kiln (tunnel kiln) for the firing process,
the ants' domes was favourable ones where the
summits of the domes were used as chimneys,
and the inside of the domes were used as firing
chambers. The kilns in the old days were called
"Tao Tu Reang" Today, kilns are made from raw
bricks and the floors are at the same levels
as the grounds. Other firing chanber parts are
still the same. The firing process can be devided
into 3 steps according to the temperature used.
- Low temperature or "Lum",
a name given by craftsmen, the temperature used
is about 0 - 300 degree celcius. At least 3
big logs are used for burning right infront
of the door of the kiln for 12 hours.
- Moderate temperature or "Ud".
the temperature used is about 300 - 900 degree
celcius. Smaller logs are used burning at the
door of the kiln for 6 hours.
- Hight temperature or "Long
Fai". The temperature is about 900
- 1,300 degree celcius.Wood and logs are burned
inside the kiln.
all the logs are burned out, the door of the
kiln must be covered or closed and kept for
48 hours before all the products are taken out.